端午節-祭拜祖先詳解

端午節

(圖片來源/Shutterstock)

家中如何祭拜你知道了嗎?粽子祖先不能拜整串是怎麼回事?家裡有剛過往未滿一年的亡者要由親友送粽子?這些民俗禮儀這篇文章一次告訴你!

端午節是華人文化中的重大節日之一,節日往往是先民們因早期生活不易,環境因素難以克服,因此都會透過天氣氣候季節的變化設立一些節、氣或節慶,用以感念原來我們都還好好存活著,而不同的節慶也代表著不同的時間氣候,會有不同的變化及民生的生活文化。

端午節 又稱惡月,因天氣炎熱、蚊蟲多,早期醫療及環境品質都不好,而儲存食物上更容易腐敗,容易染疫,因而有此稱呼,當然不同地區這樣的影響自然也有所不同。近代在端午節這天家中祖先以及神明該如何祭拜,是民眾或新手剛接觸拜拜者很困擾的地方,以下就讓筆者來告訴大家端午節怎樣準備祭拜祖先、神明、地基主。
端午節祖先的祭拜

祭拜祖先是一種飲水思源的重要象徵,也是一種悼念感念,而在端午節這天祭拜祖先基本上就是以當季的食物就可以作為供品,可以只供粽子,在這裡粽子有些有忌諱是整串的,因為寓意不好,畢竟祖先是先人,屬於已逝世者,而粽子如果整串上供桌那樣的寓意並不佳,有意味者逝世會像粽子一樣串連著,所以會將其剪開(意味解開)。有些家庭傳統一點還是會特別準備菜、飯、酒等豐盛菜餚,依筆者而言以七種菜色、一鍋飯、一湯、酒可以整支上桌。另外紙錢的部分,大部分以刈金(南部為四方金)為主,支數依各自家庭傳統傳承,有些會再加上銀紙(筆者基本上比較不採用,而有些老師則認為祖先層次沒這高,所以還是會用到銀紙的,這部分就依各自家庭傳統即可,並沒有硬性規定。)

剛過往未滿一年的亡者,要由親友送粽子?

關於這個問題,筆者近日也剛好有朋友詢問到,筆者特別去查了這個傳統禮俗,原因出在早期基本上粽子是家家戶戶都會自己包來過節的,所以家中如有未滿一年的亡者很多節日是低調不特別過的,所以就會有需要親友送粽子來祭拜的禮俗,但換在現代有些家庭根本已經沒有再自己包粽子的習慣了都是外面買,因此這個禮俗在現代而言基本上問題並特殊。

端午節家中神明與地基主的祭拜方式

端午節,家中有些神明葷素是不忌的,其實要看各家習慣,有些除了粽子外,還會增添三牲、酒,有些則是粽子加上五樣水果,有些家庭習慣都是水果那就以果供之,而紙錢的部分則為壽金、刈金(四方金)、福金、大百壽金,合稱四色金,有些則會再加上叩答恩光的(天公金),共五種類的紙錢;而地基主的祭拜方式可以如同祖先的方式,可以是粽子,也可以是菜飯酒、地基主金紙部分為刈金(四方金)為主。

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